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Concepts and Phenomena

Contact details lecturer: Dr. Samtleben Dorothea. Search for Courses Programmes Keywords Academic year Search.

Physics of Elementary Particles Course. Admission Requirements Speciale Relativiteitstheorie, Klassieke Mechanica a, Classical Electrodynamics and Quantum Mechanics 2 Description This course introduces the current understanding of elementary particles and their interactions. The diameter of the nucleus is between is of the order of 10 meters, or 0.

A proton is a composite particle with a positive elementary electric charge. The number of protons in the nucleus, called atomic number , is the defining property of any chemical element. The word proton is Greek for "first". Unlike protons, which have a positive charge, or electrons, which have a negative charge, neutrons have zero charge. They are slightly heavier than protons, property which make them unstable particles. They decay into protons with a lifetime of 11 minutes.


  1. Electrons and related particles.
  2. Anonymity: A Secret History of English Literature.
  3. Description.

Quarks strongly binds together to form composite particles called hadrons , like protons and neutrons. The graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation in the framework of quantum field theory.

The Fundamental Particles and Their Interactions

If it exists, the graviton is expected to be massless. A photon is the quantum of the electromagnetic field, including radiation such as light. Its name, indeed, comes from the Greek word for "light". The photon has zero mass and always moves at the speed of light within a vacuum. W and Z bosons are very massive elementary particles, as heavy as bromine Br atoms, therefore they decay quickly into lighter particles. For this reason they can only interact weakly. The W boson is named after the "weak force", whereas the Z boson is called like this because it has "zero" charge.

A gluon is a massless elementary particle that, in lay terms, "glue" quarks together, forming protons, neutrons, and other hadrons. The gluon-gluon interaction is so strong that it confines quarks within composite particles.

Admission Requirements

This limits the range of the strong force to the size of an atomic nucleus. A lepton is an elementary particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but it is sensibile to the weak force and, if with a charge, to the electromagnetic force. The name lepton comes from the Greek and means "thin". The spin is an intrinsic properties of subatomic particles.

Virtually accurate

All elementary particles of a given kind have the same value of spin. This term designates a particle with a half-integer spin, e. It has to obey the Pauli exclusion principle , for which two or more identical fermions cannot occupy the same quantum state.

Fundamental Particles

As bosons, the force carrier all have an integer spin , specifically of 1. They are manifestation of underlying symmetries of the Universe, called gauge symmetries. Being a boson, the Higgs boson has integer spin, but its value is 0. This kind of particles are called scalar bosons. It was first theorized in , but only discovered in at the LHC.

elementary particles: Standard Model of Particle Physics | Infoplease

A Lagrangian is a function of space and time which describes the dynamics of a system. Using Quantum Field Theory , physicists can extract all the information they need from the Lagrangian. General Relativity is the best description of gravity we have.