Otherwise, the in-memory persistence provider is the default. Each client and web service can specify one or more one per port persistence providers, which can be either the Coherence provider or the in-memory provider. Kerberos is an authentication protocol that enables computers clients and servers communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner, with the help of a trusted third party.
In Kerberos, this trusted third party is the Key Distribution Center KDC , which contains key information for clients and servers, called principals.
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The KDC consists of two components:. Here are the high-level steps involved when Kerberos is used for message security between a client principal and a server principal:. It then responds with:. The client decrypts the confirmation and checks whether the timestamp is correctly updated. If so, the client can trust the server and can begin issuing service requests. Sometimes, a service needs to access another service or server in order to complete a client request.
In order to establish such a connection, Kerberos requires the first service to be authenticated to the second service or server using the client's user account and authority level. The mechanism Kerberos provides to meet this requirement is called credential delegation.
Here are a high-level steps involved in using forwarded TGT:. To fulfill the user's request, Service 1 needs to invoke Service 2 to perform some action on behalf of the user.
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The ticket identifies the client as the user, and not Service 1. The client requests access to a protected service on the server without any Authorization header. Since there is no Authorization header in the request, server responds with the status code Unauthorized and the WWW-Authenticate header set to Negotiate.
The client uses the user credentials to obtain the Kerberos token and then sends it to the server in the Authorization header of the new request. For example, Authorization: Negotiate aaa The server decodes the token in the Authorization header. If the context is not complete as in the case of Mutual Authentication , the server responds with a status code and a WWW-Authenticate header containing the decoded data.
The client decodes this data and sends new data back to the server. This cycle continues until the security context is established. The Web Services Secure Conversation WS-SecureConversation specification includes a feature called derived keys , which enables parties that have already authenticated to each other to use a common secret to derive additional keys for various uses, such as signing and encrypting messages. Moreover, the WS-SecureConversation specification defines two types of derived keys:.
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Explicit derived keys, which use the wsc:DerivedKeyToken element to contain the token information. The ds:KeyInfo element then contains a reference to this information. Implicit derived keys, which include the token information directly in the ds:KeyInfo element.
In particular, the specification defines a number of XML elements used to identify web service endpoints and to secure end-to-end endpoint identification in messages. SOAP does not provide a standard way to specify where a message is going or how responses or faults are returned.
WS-Addressing provides an XML framework for identifying web services endpoints and for securing end-to-end endpoint identification in messages. A web service endpoint is a resource such as an application or a processor to which web services messages are sent.
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The WS-Trust 1. WS-Trust extensions provide methods for issuing, renewing, and validating security tokens. To secure communication between a web service client and a web service, the two parties must exchange security credentials. Federation — Identity federation allows a user to consolidate the many local identities he has configured among multiple service providers. With a federated identity, the individual can log in at one service provider site and move to an affiliated service provider site without having to re-authenticate or re-establish his identity.
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For example, you might use the STS to map a client user name to the user name expected by the web service. You use this trust to provide interoperable security tokens. Consider the token exchange scenario shown in Figure In this scenario, a customer has a desktop application for example, a. In Figure user "joe" logs into his desktop and a Kerberos ticket is created.
When the user opens the desktop application and performs an operation, this results in a backend web service call and we want to propagate the identity of "joe" to the backend application. You can use an STS to do a token conversion or token exchange. WS-ReliableMessaging makes message exchanges reliable. It ensures that messages are delivered reliably between distributed applications regardless of software component, system, or network failures. Ordered delivery is assured and automatic retransmission of failed messages does not have to be coded by each client application.
That is, the client and the server can each act simultaneously as both a message source and destination on the communications path. Oracle Entitlements Server OES is a fine-grained authorization service you can use to secure applications and services across the enterprise. It supports centralized definition of complex application entitlements and the distributed runtime enforcement of those entitlements. OES allows you to externalize entitlements and thereby remove security decisions from the application. The OES authorization policy provides a grant or deny for a subject to perform a certain action on a given resource.
Data masking. This section references many OES concepts and features. However, the focus of the section is the integration with OWSM, and it does not attempt to provide an in-depth discussion of the OES concepts. Administrator's Guide for Oracle Entitlements Server. Use the OES console to create authorization and data masking policies, typically with separate policies for Obligations.
To do this, OWSM passes to OES the authenticated subject, the target resource and requested action, as well as a set of implicit attributes that are always passed in authorization requests.
In your OES policy you can define additional required values based on context attributes from the SOAP request, HTTP headers, message context properties or identity information like the subject, roles, and groups. Specifically, there are two ways to contact OES for the authorization decision: a two-step method and a single-step method. You select which via the use. In the two-step process, you must have previously identified attributes required for fine-grained authorization in the OES console and you now want OWSM to use them.
This means that you actually define two OES policies: one to get the needed attributes, and one for the authorization itself. You can also use always-passed implicit attributes, plus OES predefined attributes such as time, date, and so forth. The single-step process does not require any previously-identified attributes. As with the two-step process, you can also use the always-passed implicit attributes, plus OES predefined attributes such as time, date, and so forth. OWSM with OES integration can mask with asterisks certain information in the response from the web service, without changing any of the web services code.
Assume you want to ensure that sensitive data is not passed over the wire in response to a web service client request. Masking sensitive data is based on who asked for it, and on other context attributes present in the request. Consider the following code flow for the web service response shown in Figure On the inbound request, OWSM enforces the request policy and performs the appropriate authentication and authorization for user Bob Doe. If the request is permitted, OWSM passes the payload to the service provider.
The service provider acts on the payload and prepares a response to be sent back to the caller. OWSM passes the caller's information and any of the user-defined attributes extracted from the response payload. The data masking rules defined in OES take into consideration the client information through transport attributes , the current subject, resource, action and any response attributes configured on the policy.
For each payload attribute, OES responds with Obligations that specify whether the attribute should be passed as-is, or masked. As described in "Understanding the Policy Model" in Administrator's Guide for Oracle Entitlements Server , when used in a policy, an Obligation may impose an additional requirement for the policy enforcing component. You configure the Obligation in the OES console.
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Another use of Obligations is data masking. In certain applications, such as data security use-cases, a simple yes or no answer may not be sufficient and the OES authorization policy might return an Obligation that specifies what data is to be masked and with what value, as previously shown in Figure The authorization types are defined as follows:. Fine Obligations — You want to determine access to the resource based on the identity of the consumer, plus specific content from the transport header or the payload specified in Obligations.
This is the common use case. That is, the OES access policy is based on a combination of identity attributes or attributes extracted from the request payload. Returned obligations can be returned based on actions; for each action you can define different XPaths, and so forth. See "user. SAML attributes are part of the implicit attributes that are always extracted if present and sent automatically. The name of the attribute is the name of the attribute inside the SAML assertion and the value is the list of strings.
There are two ways to implement this use case. Coarse — You want OES to determine access to the resource based on the identity of the consumer and the web service operation being called. The OES access check is based on the identity attributes, which are limited to user name, group, and role. You can also use the implicit attributes, plus OES predefined attributes such as time, date, and so forth. You must set use.
Figure shows the coarse-grained authorization use case. In this use case, assume that you want to secure the service with an authorization policy that determines whether the consumer is allowed to access the service. You want to determine access to the resource based on the identity authenticated subject of the consumer and the web service operation being invoked.
For example, in Figure user Bob Doe might be authorized to get the customer detail but not to delete the customer record.