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Bell and Rand introduce each material type - glass, concrete, wood, metal, plastic and masonry units - with new text describing its history and significance. Accessible case studies highlight recent advances in design and construction around the world - from a wooden church in Finland JKMM Architects and hand-crafted bamboo huts in Thailand TYIN Tegnetsue Architects to a bank encased in a glass shroud in Denmark Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects and a museum faced with thousands of multicoloured ceramic rods in Germany Sauerbruch Hutton.

In a materials landscape that constantly changes to meet the demands of contemporary designers, Materials for Architectural Design 2 is an up-to-date guide to the best and most exciting materials at their disposal. Lees meer. Victoria Ballard Bell is a licensed architect, with MA degrees from the University of Virginia in both architecture and urban planning. New classes of nonlinear structured polymeric materials have been invented, such as dendrimers.

These structures have regularly spaced branch points beginning from a central point—like branches from a tree trunk. New struc-. High-molecular-weight polymers can be useful as solid materials and in solution, and lower molecular weight polymers can make liquids that are unusual in character. Synthetic adhesives illustrate liquid-phase materials that cross-link or polymerize when they set.

Water-based paints are another example, liquids with suspended solid polymer particles that form uniform solid films during drying. So-called liquid crystals illustrate another exciting example of complex fluid materials; these are liquid-phase materials made up of anisotropic, usually fairly rigid, molecules of high aspect ratio that have strong electric dipole moments.

Such molecules are prone to adopt preferred orientations, especially under the influence of surfaces, electric fields, and flow processes. Control over preferred orientations gives high anisotropic strength of materials and switchable optical properties, making them useful in displays such as those on digital watches and laptop computers. Multicomponent systems having molecules of macromolecular size and heterogeneous composition can be exquisitely sensitive to the delicate balance of intermolecular forces.

The fine interplay among a suite of noncovalent interactions e. Molecular organization and interaction cause collective and cooperative behavior to dictate macroscopic properties. Often the balance of forces is such that self-assembly occurs to generate aggregates, arrays, or other supramolecular structures.

Large molecular size enables amplification of a small segmental effect into a large intermolecular effect. Self-assembly can amplify the small forces between small objects to produce large-scale structures useful for macroscopic creations for patterning, sieving, sorting, detecting, or growing materials, biological molecules, or chemicals.

Learning to understand and harness intermolecular interactions in multicomponent polymer and composite systems offers huge challenges, as well as opportunities to mimic nature, which has learned to do this in many instances. Self-assembled monolayers SAMs are ordered, two-dimensional crystals or quasi-crystals formed by adsorption and ordering of organic molecules or metal complexes on planar substrates. Development of these monolayers is based on early studies in which chemists learned to attach chemicals to surfaces—for purposes ranging from adhesion to chromatography to electrochemistry—but often without strong ordering in the monolayers.

The ordered structures have made it possible to develop a rational surface science of organic materials. They provide the best current example of the power of self-assembly to make possible the design of the properties of materials.


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They have made routine the control of wetting, adhesion, and corrosion in certain systems, and—through soft lithography—they have provided a new approach to microfabrication that is uniquely chemical in its versatility. They have also greatly advanced the field of biomaterials by making it possible to control the interface between cells and synthetic materials at the molecular level. Building ever smaller devices has been a dominant trend in microelectronics technology for 50 years. The technology used for this type of fabrication is photolithography.

This astonishingly sophisticated technology is a kind of photography: The pattern that is to be a part of the circuit is formed by shining ultraviolet light through a mask a pattern of chromium on silica , through a reducing lens, onto a thin film of photosensitive polymer a photoresist covering the surface of a silicon wafer. After exposure, the exposed polymer differs in its solubility from unexposed material, and a suitable solvent allows the selective dissolution of either exposed or unexposed regions. The exposed regions are then treated by deposition of metal, etching, or implantation of ions to make a part of the final device.

Photolithography is the basis of one of the technologies that has genuinely changed the world—it has made possible the computing and information revolution.

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But it is not suited for making every possible type of small structure. An alternative to photolithography has been developed that is—for many applications in chemistry and biology—more versatile and much less expensive. The element in these methods is a stamp or mold that is fabricated in a transparent, chemically inert elastomer, poly dimethyl siloxane PDMS. Because the stamp can deform, it is called soft; the organic materials that are printed and molded are also called soft matter by physicists—hence the name soft lithography. If the stamp is sealed to another surface, the patterns become microchannels for analysis of nucleic acids, proteins, or cells.

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Soft Lithography. Figures a-c illustrate a soft-lithographic technique called microcontact printing. A PDMS stamp with features in bas-relief is coated with an ethanolic solution of octadecanethiol, and placed in contact with the surface of a thin metallic film nm of gold, silver, or palladium. A self-assembled monolayer SAM of octadecanethiolate forms on the surface of the metal in the regions where it contacts the PDMS stamp.

The stamp is removed and the regions of the metallic film without a SAM are dissolved by wet-chemical etching. Figure d is a schematic diagram of a long, serpentine, palladium wire 2 m with contact pads that are connected to the wire at every 0. Figure e is a SEM image of a section of the pattern. Drawings a-c courtesy of George M.

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Whitesides; d-e reprinted with permission from D. Wolfe et al. Soft lithography is very simple, and it does not require expensive instrumentation or access to clean rooms.

It does not give the lateral accuracy of photolithography, but it is much less expensive. The size of the features it can make is not limited by optical diffraction, but rather by van der Waals contacts and by deformations in the polymer used.

The 12222 materials by design roadmap

It has become a tool that is widely used in chemistry to make micro- and nanostructures. Micelles, liposomes, shell-linked particles, and vesicles are all results of the spontaneous self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules to form enclosed or aggregate structures that contain solvophobic regions surrounded by solvent-loving moieties. In all of these structures, opportunities abound to exploit them for chemical separations, controlled release, directed transport, and synthesis.

Fundamental studies of these organized systems have increased in the recent decade. The pursuit is often biologically inspired, but in creating mimics we still fall short of the natural systems. Combining this activity with concerted synthetic chemistry and biochemistry provides great potential for the future. The properties of modern electronic, optoelectronic, photonic, and magnetic devices provide another story of great science that has affected most of humankind.

Electronic devices require special materials: materials that emit light when struck by a beam of electrons for use in television screens and computer monitors, materials to make the semiconductors that are the heart of electronic and microelectronic circuits, and materials that are used in magnetic memory storage devices for computers.

References

Classical electronic circuits and communication lines are made of metal to conduct electricity. Now we have the prospect of massively communicating by optical signals. The great progress in the use of optical fibers to permit light to travel in and between devices results from major achievements in materials processing. Special surface coatings on the fibers reduce signal degradation; optical switches allow connections with devices communicating through optical fibers. The optical fiber revolution provides very high speed plus the ability to pack much more information into a given transmission.

There is considerable interest in developing new types of magnetic materials, with a particular hope that ferroelectric solids and polymers can be constructed— materials having spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by an electric field.


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  7. Such materials could lead to new low-cost memory devices for computers. The fine control of dispersed magnetic nanostructures will take the storage and tunability of magnetic media to new levels, and novel tunneling microscopy approaches allow measurement of microscopic hysteresis effects in iron nanowires. One of the most exciting properties of some materials is superconductivity.

    Some complex metal oxides have the ability to conduct electricity free of any resistance, and thus free of power loss. Many materials are superconducting at very low temperatures close to absolute zero , but recent work has moved the so-called transition temperature where superconducting properties appear to higher and higher values.

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    There are still no superconductors that can operate at room temperature, but this goal is actively pursued. As more current is passed through. The development of a full, predictive theory of high-temperature superconductivity would be a major asset to the realization of practical materials in this area. The materials studied to date are also difficult to process—they are easily corroded or brittle—thus motivating further study of novel processing or assembly techniques. If practical superconductors can be made that will conduct appreciable currents at reasonable temperatures—perhaps even from organic materials—it may become possible to transfer electric power over long distances with high efficiency, and to exploit magnetic levitation for transportation systems.

    The first demonstration of continuous electrical tunability of spin coherence the state and degree of alignment of electronic spins in semiconductor nanostructures has recently been made. This opens possibilities for the field of quantum computation by permitting properties other than electronic charge—and particularly the quantum property of spin—to be manipulated for computing purposes.