Manual LIFE - AS A MATTER OF FAT: Lipids in a Membrane Biophysics Perspective

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Journal articles Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography. A journal article with 1 author. A journal article with 2 authors. Showalter and J. Lissauer, Science , , , — A journal article with 3 authors. Soung, K. Pruitt and J.

Chung, Sci. A journal article with 4 or more authors. Sun, R. Olson, M. Horning, N. Armstrong, M. Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. Overview The present book gives a multi-disciplinary perspective on the physics of life and the particular role played by lipids fats and the lipid-bilayer component of cell membranes.

From the reviews of the first edition: "This is a highly interesting book and a pleasure to read. Show More.

Table of Contents Prologue: Lipidology - the science of lipids. Average Review. Write a Review. Related Searches. This book brings together a series of experts and experienced clinicians to describe and discuss This book brings together a series of experts and experienced clinicians to describe and discuss a series of BPD cases in a manner that emphasizes core descriptive and diagnostic features, generalizable principles and techniques, and key take-home messages for clinicians View Product.

British Strategy and Intelligence in the Suez Crisis. In doing so it identifies broader lessons not only Culture, Diversity and Heritage: Major Studies. The texts presented in this book trace the rise of culture as a major concern The texts presented in this book trace the rise of culture as a major concern for development, international diplomacy, sustainability and national politics over the past two decades. Prenol lipids are synthesized from the five-carbon-unit precursors isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate that are produced mainly via the mevalonic acid MVA pathway. Structures containing greater than 40 carbons are known as polyterpenes.

LIFE - AS A MATTER OF FAT

Carotenoids are important simple isoprenoids that function as antioxidants and as precursors of vitamin A. Prokaryotes synthesize polyprenols called bactoprenols in which the terminal isoprenoid unit attached to oxygen remains unsaturated, whereas in animal polyprenols dolichols the terminal isoprenoid is reduced.

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Saccharolipids describe compounds in which fatty acids are linked directly to a sugar backbone, forming structures that are compatible with membrane bilayers. In the saccharolipids, a monosaccharide substitutes for the glycerol backbone present in glycerolipids and glycerophospholipids. The minimal lipopolysaccharide required for growth in E. Polyketides are synthesized by polymerization of acetyl and propionyl subunits by classic enzymes as well as iterative and multimodular enzymes that share mechanistic features with the fatty acid synthases.

They comprise a large number of secondary metabolites and natural products from animal, plant, bacterial, fungal and marine sources, and have great structural diversity. Many commonly used anti-microbial , anti-parasitic , and anti-cancer agents are polyketides or polyketide derivatives, such as erythromycins , tetracyclines , avermectins , and antitumor epothilones.

Unperturbed hydrocarbon chains and liquid phase bilayer lipid chains: a computer simulation study

Eukaryotic cells feature the compartmentalized membrane-bound organelles that carry out different biological functions. The glycerophospholipids are the main structural component of biological membranes , as the cellular plasma membrane and the intracellular membranes of organelles ; in animal cells, the plasma membrane physically separates the intracellular components from the extracellular environment.

Plant thylakoid membranes have the largest lipid component of a non-bilayer forming monogalactosyl diglyceride MGDG , and little phospholipids; despite this unique lipid composition, chloroplast thylakoid membranes have been shown to contain a dynamic lipid-bilayer matrix as revealed by magnetic resonance and electron microscope studies. A biological membrane is a form of lamellar phase lipid bilayer. The formation of lipid bilayers is an energetically preferred process when the glycerophospholipids described above are in an aqueous environment.

In an aqueous system, the polar heads of lipids align towards the polar, aqueous environment, while the hydrophobic tails minimize their contact with water and tend to cluster together, forming a vesicle ; depending on the concentration of the lipid, this biophysical interaction may result in the formation of micelles , liposomes , or lipid bilayers. Other aggregations are also observed and form part of the polymorphism of amphiphile lipid behavior. Phase behavior is an area of study within biophysics and is the subject of current [ when? So in an aqueous environment, the water molecules form an ordered " clathrate " cage around the dissolved lipophilic molecule.

The formation of lipids into protocell membranes represents a key step in models of abiogenesis , the origin of life. Triglycerides, stored in adipose tissue, are a major form of energy storage both in animals and plants. They are a major source of energy because carbohydrates are fully reduced structures. In comparison to glycogen which would contribute only half of the energy per its pure mass, triglyceride carbons are all bonded to hydrogens, unlike in carbohydrates.

Migratory birds that must fly long distances without eating use stored energy of triglycerides to fuel their flights. In recent years, evidence has emerged showing that lipid signaling is a vital part of the cell signaling. They accomplish this by being exposed to the extracellular face of the cell membrane after the inactivation of flippases which place them exclusively on the cytosolic side and the activation of scramblases, which scramble the orientation of the phospholipids. After this occurs, other cells recognize the phosphatidylserines and phagocytosize the cells or cell fragments exposing them.

Acyl-carnitines are involved in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids in and out of mitochondria, where they undergo beta oxidation. Polyprenol phosphate sugars and polyprenol diphosphate sugars function in extra-cytoplasmic glycosylation reactions, in extracellular polysaccharide biosynthesis for instance, peptidoglycan polymerization in bacteria , and in eukaryotic protein N- glycosylation. The major dietary lipids for humans and other animals are animal and plant triglycerides, sterols, and membrane phospholipids.


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The process of lipid metabolism synthesizes and degrades the lipid stores and produces the structural and functional lipids characteristic of individual tissues. In animals, when there is an oversupply of dietary carbohydrate, the excess carbohydrate is converted to triglycerides. This involves the synthesis of fatty acids from acetyl-CoA and the esterification of fatty acids in the production of triglycerides, a process called lipogenesis.

The acyl chains in the fatty acids are extended by a cycle of reactions that add the acetyl group, reduce it to an alcohol, dehydrate it to an alkene group and then reduce it again to an alkane group. The enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis are divided into two groups, in animals and fungi all these fatty acid synthase reactions are carried out by a single multifunctional protein, [88] while in plant plastids and bacteria separate enzymes perform each step in the pathway. The synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids involves a desaturation reaction, whereby a double bond is introduced into the fatty acyl chain.

For example, in humans, the desaturation of stearic acid by stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 produces oleic acid. Triglyceride synthesis takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum by metabolic pathways in which acyl groups in fatty acyl-CoAs are transferred to the hydroxyl groups of glycerolphosphate and diacylglycerol.


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Terpenes and isoprenoids , including the carotenoids , are made by the assembly and modification of isoprene units donated from the reactive precursors isopentenyl pyrophosphate and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. In animals and archaea , the mevalonate pathway produces these compounds from acetyl-CoA, [93] while in plants and bacteria the non-mevalonate pathway uses pyruvate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate as substrates.

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Here, the isoprene units are joined together to make squalene and then folded up and formed into a set of rings to make lanosterol. Beta oxidation is the metabolic process by which fatty acids are broken down in the mitochondria or in peroxisomes to generate acetyl-CoA. For the most part, fatty acids are oxidized by a mechanism that is similar to, but not identical with, a reversal of the process of fatty acid synthesis. That is, two-carbon fragments are removed sequentially from the carboxyl end of the acid after steps of dehydrogenation , hydration , and oxidation to form a beta-keto acid , which is split by thiolysis.

Hence the citric acid cycle can start at acetyl-CoA when fat is being broken down for energy if there is little or no glucose available.

Life - As a Matter of Fat : Lipids in a Membrane Biophysics Perspective - specadmorinna.ml

The energy yield of the complete oxidation of the fatty acid palmitate is ATP. Most of the fat found in food is in the form of triglycerides, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Some dietary fat is necessary to facilitate absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A , D , E , and K and carotenoids. Most vegetable oils are rich in linoleic acid safflower , sunflower , and corn oils. Alpha-linolenic acid is found in the green leaves of plants, and in selected seeds, nuts, and legumes in particular flax , rapeseed , walnut , and soy.

Fats that are good for you can be turned into trans fats by overcooking. A few studies have suggested that total dietary fat intake is linked to an increased risk of obesity [] [] and diabetes. The Nutrition Source, a website maintained by the Department of Nutrition at the Harvard School of Public Health , summarizes the current evidence on the impact of dietary fat: "Detailed research—much of it done at Harvard—shows that the total amount of fat in the diet isn't really linked with weight or disease.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A substance of biological origin that is soluble in nonpolar. Main article: Fatty acid.


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  • Main article: Phospholipid. Main article: Sphingolipid. Main article: Sterol. Organic Chemistry. Journal of Lipid Research.