It describes alcohol's effects on the brain and other organs of the body, and contains a special section on facts about alcohol and pregnancy. Other chapters cover treatment, recovery options, and information about preventing alcohol abuse, and maintaining sobriety. It is one of 60 volumes in the Health Reference Series. There is also one on Oral Health. This would be a good sourcebook for dental hygienists concerned with the subject of alcoholism. It deals objectively with the new controversy of moderate drinking, and presents information about gender differences, which are so striking in relationship to females and their hormone base.
It includes current and efficiently organized references and resources needed for researching this topic.
It lives up to its title as the "Sourcebook," with illustrations and an index that fully support the text. It is important to note that information concerning increased oral cancer, caries, and periodontal disease risk is included but only superficially. Full citation information is provided on the rst page of each chap- ter or section. Every effort has been made to secure all necessary rights to reprint the copyrighted material. If any omissions have been made, please contact Omnigraphics to make corrections for future editions.
Acknowledgements In addition to the listed organizations, agencies, and individuals who have contributed to this Sourcebook, special thanks go to man- aging editor Karen Bellenir, research and permissions coordinator Liz Collins, and document engineer Bruce Bellenir for their help and support. About the Health Reference Series The Health Reference Series is designed to provide basic medical information for patients, families, caregivers, and the general public.
Each volume takes a particular topic and provides comprehensive cov- erage. This is especially important for people who may be dealing with a newly diagnosed disease or a chronic disorder in themselves or in a family member. People looking for preventive guidance, information about disease warning signs, medical statistics, and risk factors for health problems will also nd answers to their questions in the Health Reference Series. All people concerned about medical symptoms or the possibility of disease are encouraged to seek profes- sional care from an appropriate health care provider.
A Note about Spelling and Style Health Reference Series editors use Stedmans Medical Dictionary as an authority for questions related to the spelling of medical terms and the Chicago Manual of Style for questions related to grammati- cal structures, punctuation, and other editorial concerns. Consistent adherence is not always possible, however, because the individual vol- umes within the Series include many documents from a wide variety of different producers and copyright holders, and the editors primary goal is to present material from each source as accurately as is possible following the terms specied by each documents producer.
This some- times means that information in different chapters or sections may follow other guidelines and alternate spelling authorities. For example,. Crohn disease or that British spelling norms be retained leukaemia vs. Locating Information within the Health Reference Series The Health Reference Series contains a wealth of information about a wide variety of medical topics. Ensuring easy access to all the fact sheets, research reports, in-depth discussions, and other material con- tained within the individual books of the Series remains one of our highest priorities.
As the Series continues to grow in size and scope, however, locating the precise information needed by a reader may become more challenging. A Contents Guide to the Health Reference Series was developed to direct readers to the specic volumes that address their concerns.
It presents an extensive list of diseases, treatments, and other topics of general interest compiled from the Tables of Contents and major index headings.
He completed residency training at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics. He is board-certied in Internal Medi- cine. In his free time, he enjoys writing, science ction, and spending time with his family. Clair Shores, MI. Since then, the Series has been enthusiastically received by librarians and in the medical community.
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In order to maintain the standard of providing high-quality health information for the layperson the editorial staff at Omnigraphics felt it was necessary to implement a policy of updating volumes when warranted. Medical researchers have been making tremendous strides, and it is the purpose of the Health Reference Series to stay current with the most recent advances. Each decision to update a volume is made on an individual basis.
Some of the considerations include how much new information is available and the feedback we receive from people who use the books. If there is a topic you would like to see added to the update list, or an area of medical concern you feel has not been adequately addressed, please write to: Editor Health Reference Series Omnigraphics, Inc. Box Detroit, MI E-mail: editorial omnigraphics. Part One. Chapter 1. Chapter Contents Section 1. Alcoholism Sourcebook, Third Edition. Do you enjoy a drink now and then? Many of us do, often when so- cializing with friends and family.
Drinking can be benecial or harmful, depending on your age and health status, the situation, and of course, how much you drink. Do you think you may drink too much at times? Do you think everyone drinks a lot? Following are results from a na- tionwide survey of 43, adults by the National Institutes of Health NIH on alcohol use and its consequences. Figure 1. Alcohol use by adults in the United States. Although the mini- mum legal drinking age in the U.
Many heavy drinkers do not have alcohol-related problems yet and can reduce their risk of harm by cutting back. For the nearly 18 million Americans who have alcoholism or related problems, however, its safest to quit. What counts as a drink? Many people are surprised to learn what counts as a drink. In the United States, a standard drink is any drink that contains about 0.
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Although the drinks pictured in Figure 1. Standard Drinks. Table 1. The examples shown serve as a starting point for comparison. For different types of beer, wine, or malt liquor, the alcohol content can vary greatly. Some differences are smaller than you might expect, however.
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Although the standard drink sizes are helpful for following health guidelines, they may not reect customary serving sizes. A mixed drink, for example, can contain one, two, or more standard drinks, depending on the type of spirits and the recipe. Whats your drinking pattern? Using the drink sizes, answer the following questions: 1.
On any day in the past year, have you ever had more than four drinks men , or more than three drinks women? Think about your typical week: a.
Sometimes even a little is too much: Even moderate levels of drinking up to two drinks per day for men or one for women can be too much in some circumstances. Its safest to avoid alcohol if you are: planning to drive a vehicle or operate machinery; taking medications that interact with alcohol; managing a medical condition that can be made worse by drinking; or pregnant or trying to become pregnant.
Can you hold your liquor? If so, you may be at greater risk. For some people, it takes quite a few drinks to get a buzz or feel relaxed. Often they are unaware that being able to hold your liquor isnt protection from alcohol problems, but instead a reason for caution. They tend to drink more, socialize with people who drink a lot, and develop a tolerance to alcohol. As a result, they have an increased risk for developing alcoholism. The higher alcohol levels can also cause liver, heart, and brain damage that can go unnoticed until its too late.
And all drinkers need to be aware that even moderate amounts of alcohol can signicantly impair driving performance, even when they dont feel a buzz from drinking. Whats low-risk drinking? A major nationwide survey of 43, U. How do these low-risk levels compare with your drinking pattern? Low risk is not no risk.
Even within these limits, drinkers can have problems if they drink too quickly, have health problems, or are older both men and women over 65 are generally advised to have no more than three drinks on any day and seven per week. Based on your health and how alcohol affects you, you may need to drink less or not at all.
Whats heavy or at-risk drinking? For healthy adults in general, drinking more than the single-day or weekly amounts shown is considered at-risk or heavy drinking. About one in four people who drink this much already has alcoholism or is abusing alcohol, and the rest are at greater risk for developing these and other problems.
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It makes a difference both how much you drink on any day and how often you have a heavy drinking daythat is, more than four drinks in a day for men or more than three drinks for women. The more drinks in a day and the more heavy drinking days over time, the greater the chances for problems.
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Why are womens low-risk limits different from mens? Research shows that women start to have alcohol-related problems at lower drinking levels than men do. One reason is that, on average, women weigh less than men.
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In addition, alcohol disperses in body water, and pound for pound, women have less water in their bodies than men do. So after a man and woman of the same weight drink the same amount of alcohol, the womans blood alcohol concentration will tend to be higher, putting her at greater risk for harm. How much do U. The majorityseven out of teneither abstain or always drink within low-risk limits. Whats the harm? Not all drinking is harmful. You may have heard that regular light to moderate drinking from half of a drink a day up to one drink a day for women and two for men can even be good for the heart.